Data from a study in which N=95 participants between the ages of 12 and 45 completed a probabilistic reversal learning task.
Enhanced response switching after negative feedback and novelty seeking in adolescence are associated with reduced representation of choice probability in medial frontal pole
Non-invasive brain stimulation modulates neural correlates of performance monitoring in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder
Data from a study in which N=60 participants (N=30 healthy controls, N=30 patients with OCD) completed a Flanker task while undergoing tDCS–EEG.
The globalizability of temporal discounting
Data from a study in which N=13,629 participants from 61 countries completed a temporal discounting task.
Uncertainty alters the balance between incremental learning and episodic memory
Data from a study in which N=418 participants completed a 2-arm probabilistic volatility task with trial unique cues.
Working Memory Load Impairs Transfer Learning in Human Adults
Data from a study in which N=27 participants completed a transfer learning task with a concurrent working memory task. Performance on transfer learning decreased with working memory load.
Gender and comorbidity moderate the relationship between mood disorder symptoms and effortful avoidance performance
Data from a study in which N=855 participants completed an avoidance- (N=545) or reward-seeking (N=310) task, in which participants had to make multiple presses on active trials and withhold presses on inhibitory trials to avoid an unpleasant sound (Study 1) or obtain points towards a monetary reward (Study 2). Overall, men deployed more effort than women in both avoidance and reward-seeking, and anxiety symptoms were negatively associated with active reward-seeking accuracy.
Brain stimulation over dorsomedial prefrontal cortex modulates effort-based decision making
Data from a study in which N=35 participants received transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) over dorsomedial prefrontal cortex while deciding whether they are willing to perform a demanding working memory task for monetary rewards.
Contextual influence of reinforcement learning performance of depression: evidence for a negativity bias?
Data from a study in which N=56 participants (major depression = 30, healthy controls = 26) completed a a 2-armed bandit task with two different contexts: one ‘rich’, one ‘poor’ where both options were associated with an overall positive, negative expected value, respectively. Learning performance followed by a transfer phase, without feedback, were analyzed to disentangle between a decision or a value-update process mechanism.
Can we Measure Individual Differences in Cognitive Measures Reliably via Smartphones? A Comparison of the Flanker Effect Across Device Types and Samples
Data from a study in which N=467 participants completed the Flanker task either using a keyboard device or smartphone device. Participants completed the task a second time one week later.
Semantic relatedness retroactively boosts memory and promotes memory interdependence across episodes
Data from a study in which N=1000 participants completed paired-associate learning experiments in which the semantic relatedness between initial and later cues, initial and later targets, or both, were systematically varied. Learning retroactively benefited long-term memory performance for semantically related words (vs. unshown control words), and these benefits increased as a function of relatedness.
Measuring individual differences in the depth of planning
Data from a study in which N=457 participants across two experiments (N=122, N=335) completed the Mouselab-MDP paradigm in order to measure how prone an individual is to plan multiple steps ahead.
Learning when effort matters: neural dynamics underlying updating and adaptation to changes in performance efficacy
Data from a study in which N=40 participants completed an incentivized cognitive control task (with EEG), while their performance efficacy (the likelihood that reward for a given trial would be determined by performance or at random) dynamically varied over time.
Computational and behavioral markers of model-based decision making in childhood
Data from a study in which N=85 participants (ages 5.0 - 11.4 yrs) completed the two-step task under low (4 points) and high stakes (20 points) conditions.
Is All Mental Effort Equal? The Role of Cognitive Demand-Type on Effort Avoidance
Data from a study in which N=150 participants across four studies (N=39, N=52, N=49, N=50) completed experiments in which they had to choose whether to expend effort on a number of different tasks (N-Back, number sequence problems, and anagrams).
Cognitive effort-based decision-making across experimental and daily life indices in younger and older adults
Data from a study in which N=310 younger and older adult participants cognitive the Effort Discounting paradigm (Cog-ED),under both gain and loss conditions, to provide an experimental index of cognitive effort costs for each participant in each framing condition. As subset of participants(N=230) also completed a seven-day Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) protocol measuring engagement in mentally demanding daily life activities.
Developmental shifts in computations used to detect environmental controllability
Data from a study in which N=90 participants (ages 8–25) completed a task that covertly alternated between controllable and uncontrollable conditions, requiring them to explore different actions to discover the current degree of environmental controllability. While children were able to distinguish controllable and uncontrollable conditions, accuracy of controllability assessments improved with age.
Computational mechanisms underlying latent inverse value updating of unchosen actions
Data from a study in which N=178 participants completed a restless multi-armed bandit reinforcement learning task with gain and loss trials.
Human inference reflects a normative balance of complexity and accuracy
Data from a study in which N=222 participants across two experiments (N=169, N=53) completed two psychophysical experiments with change-points (Gaussian change-point task, discrete Bernoulli change-point task).
Between- and Within-Subject Covariance Perspectives Matter for Investigations into the Relationship Between Single- and Dual-Tasking Performance
Data from a study in which N=58 participants completed a multi-tasking paradigm over 20 sessions.
Blend in or stand out: social anxiety levels shape information-sharing strategies
Data from a study in which N=331 participants completed an advice-giving task in which a client seeks advice about which colored ball to bet on in a lottery, and two advisers compete for influence over the client’s decisions. Social anxiety levels are related to the tendency to give advice resembling the advice given by rival advisers and to refrain from status-seeking behavior.
Explicit knowledge of task structure is a primary determinant of human model-based action
Data from a study in which N=204 participants (healthy controls = 109, OCD = 46, mood and anxiety disorders = 49) completed a simplified version of two-step task requiring minimal prior instruction. Model-based control emerged with experience in a minority of participants, and less in those with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Providing task structure information strongly increased model-based control, similarly across all groups.
Exploration heuristics decrease during youth
Data from a study in which N=108 participants (aged 8-18) completed a variant of the horizons task.
The repulsion effect in preferential choice and its relation to perceptual choice
Data from a study in which N=55 participants completed both perceptual and economic decision-making tasks, while undergoing eye-tracking, in order to investigate the repulsion effect and information-search processes across decision-making domains.
Action initiation and punishment learning differ from childhood to adolescence while reward learning remains stable
Data from a study in which N=742 participants (ages 9-18) completed a “passive avoidance” reinforcement learning task in which they gained points by pressing a button when presented with “good” objects and withholding responses when presented with “bad” objects.
The Effect of Prediction Error on Episodic Memory Encoding is Modulated by the Outcome of the Predictions
Data from a study in which N=72 participants across two experiments (N=32, N=40) learned context/object-category associations of different strength based on the outcomes of their predictions. Then participants were asked to complete a surprise recognition memory test.
Anxiety increases information-seeking in response to large changes
Data from a study in which N=1155 participants across three experiments (N=1065, N=42, N=48) completed several self-report measures of anxiety and information seeking behaviors in the real world. A smaller subset of participants completed a stock market task in which participants bid for a chance to know (or remain ignorant about) the value of their portfolio, indicating how much they were willing to pay to receive this information or to avoid it.
Preferences for seeking effort or reward information bias the willingness to work
Data from a study in which N=40 participants completed a physical effort task in which they made choices about whether to work and exert different levels of physical effort to obtain different magnitudes of reward, or whether to take a rest for low reward. Prior to those choices, they also had to decide which information they wanted to see first: how effortful, or rewarding, work would be.
Neuroscience in Psychiatry Network
Data from the NSPN study, a dataset of N=2400 adolescents and young adults (ages 14-24) who completed many self-report, cognitive, and reinforcement learning measures.
No evidence for disruption of reconsolidation of conditioned threat memories with a cognitively demanding intervention
Data from a study in which N=41 participants completed an established 3-day threat conditioning paradigm. Participants also performed a 2-back working memory task on the second day. Although threat conditioning was successful, the cognitively demanding intervention did not alter the reconsolidation process of conditioned threat memories.
Costly avoidance of Pavlovian fear stimuli and the temporal dynamics of its decision process
Data from a study in which N=80 participants completed an approach/avoidance task in which they chose between a CS−/low reward and a CS+/high reward option. For the latter, probability of CS+ presentation (Pavlovian fear information) and reward magnitude (reward information) varied. Computer mouse movements were tracked to capture the decision dynamics. Participants also completed multiple self-report psychiatric symptom measures.
The construction and use of cognitive maps in model-based control
Data from a study in which N=161 participants completed a sequential decision-making task similar to the two-step task in which they provided pairwise-similarity ratings on ten novel objects before and after encountering them in the task. Participants who encoded stronger higher-order relationships among choice options showed increased planning and better performance.
Humans actively sample evidence to support prior beliefs
Data from a study in which N=53 participants across two experiments (N=30, N=23) completed a perceptual decision-making task in which they were briefly presented with stimuli and asked which of the two contained the most dots. After, participants could freely sample (i.e., see) each dot patch. They were asked to rate their confidence before and after the free sampling phase.
Cognitive Control Beyond Single-Item Tasks: Insights from Pupillometry, Gaze, and Behavioral Measures
Data from a study in which N=42 participants completed single- and multi-item Stroop tasks with eye-tracking and pupillometry.
Distinct but correlated latent factors support the regulation of learned conflict-control and task-switching
Data from a study in which N=950 participants completed the List-wide proportion congruent (LWPC) and List-wide proportion switch (LWPS) tasks.
Children’s value-based decision making
Data from a study in which N=72 children completed a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm where they saw five colored shapes followed by either appetitive, aversive, or neutral reinforcers. After the conditioning task, participants completed a behavioral choice task in which they were asked to use information from the conditioning task to approach or avoid appetitive and aversive stimuli.
Test-retest reliability of affective bias tasks
Data from a study in which N=58 individuals completed the Pavlovian go/no-go task and ambiguous midpoint task. Participants completed each task twice, with at least 14 days in between sessions
Evidence integration and decision confidence are modulated by stimulus consistency
Data from a study in which N=104 participants across four studies (N=27, N=30, N=22, N=25) completed a sequential sampling paradigm in which participants had to judge which sequence of stimuli were drawn from a distribution with a higher mean value.
The effect of apathy and compulsivity on planning and stopping in sequential decision-making
Data from a study in which N=1205 participants across two experiments (N=449, N=756) completed a novel sequential decision making tasks. Participants also completed several self-report psychiatric symptom measures.
Uncovering the Cognitive Mechanisms Underlying the Gaze Cueing Effect
Data from a study in which N=171 participants (139,001 trials) completed a paradigm to study the gaze cueing effect.
Motivation improves working memory by two processes: Prioritisation and retrieval thresholds
Data from a study in which N=214 participants across six experiments (N=33, N=34, N=30, N=30, N=74, N=15) completed an orientation working memory task with monetary incentives. Motivational improvements in WM were found even when all items were rewarded. Findings suggest this was not due to better memory precision, but rather better selection of the probed item within memory.
Simultaneous modeling of choice, confidence and response time in visual perception
Data from a study in which N=58 participants across two experiments (N=16, N=42) completed two perceptual decision-making tasks (masked orientation discrimination, motion direction discrimination) with confidence ratings.
Distinct Neural Profiles of Frontoparietal Networks in Boys with ADHD and Boys with Persistent Depressive Disorder.
Data from a study in which N=39 participants (children and adolescents) completed the Sternberg type working memory task.
Learning About the Self: Motives for coherence and positivity constrain learning from self-relevant feedback
Data from a study in which N=48 participants received feedback while evaluating themselves on traits drawn from a causal network of trait semantics. Participants learned from positive feedback but dismissed negative feedback.
Testing models of context-dependent outcome encoding in reinforcement learning
Data from a study in which N=110 participants across two experiments (N=60, N=50) a novel range adaptation task to study relative encoding of rewards.
Hallucination-proneness is associated with a decrease in robust averaging of perceptual evidence
Data from a study in which N=183 participants completed a multi-element perceptual averaging task in which observers made dichotomous judgments about the “average color” (red or blue) of an array of stimuli in trials that varied in the strength (mean) and reliability (variance) of the decision-relevant perceptual evidence. Participants also completed two self-report measures of dimensions of psychosis-proneness.
The importance of linguistic information in human reinforcement learning
Data from a study in which N=125 participants across two experiments (N=88, N=37) completed a conditional associative learning paradigm with three different stimulus conditions: stimuli with distinct visual representations but overlapping linguistic representations, stimuli with distinct linguistic representations but overlapping visual representations, and stimuli with distinct visual and linguistic representations
Information about task progress modulates cognitive demand avoidance
Data from a study in which N=714 participants across two experiments (N=502, N=212) completed the demand selection task in the presence or absence of completion progress feedback.
Impaired disengagement from worry: Dissociating the impacts of valence and internally-directed attention
Data from a study in which N=200 participants completed the sustained attention to response task interspersed with tasks that required internal attention to worry content or external attention to a secondary game.
Modeling the mind of a predator: Interactive cognitive maps support flexible avoidance of dynamic threats
Data from a study in which N=510 participants across three experiments (N=150, N=80, N=280) in a novel approach/avoidance game where participants had to collect rewards while avoiding being “eaten” by a predator.
A passive computational marker for individual differences in non-reinforced learning
Data from a study in which N=864 participants completed the cue-approach training (CAT) task, a paradigm that manipulates preferences via the mere exposure effect.